Gastric UltraSound

A Point-of-care tool for aspiration risk assessment



Gastric Ultrasound

A Point-of-care tool for aspiration risk assessment


Reviews and editorials

types of gastric content in adults

gastric volumeS in adults

  • Fujigaki T, Fukusaki M, Nakamura H, Shibata O, Sumikawa K. Quantitative evaluation of gastric contents using ultrasound. J Clin Anesth. 1993 Nov-Dec; 5 (6): 451-5.
  • Ricci R, Bontempo I, Corazziari E, La Bella A, Torsoli A. Real time ultrasonography of the gastric antrum. Gut 1993 Feb; 34 (2): 173-6.
  • Hveem K, Hausken T, Berstad A. Ultrasonographic assessment of fasting liquid content in the human stomach. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1994 Sep; 29 (9): 786-9.
  • Perlas A, Chan VW, Lupu CM, Mitsakakis N, Hanbidge A. Ultrasound assessment of gastric content and volume. Anesthesiology. 2009 Jul; 111 (1): 82-9.
  • Bouvet L, Miquel A, Chassard D, Boselli E, Allaouiche B, Benhamou D. Could a single standardized ultrasound measurement of antral area be of interest for assessing gastric contents? A preliminary report. European Journal of Anesthesiology 2009; 26:1015-1019.
  • Bouvet L, Mazoit JX, Chassard D, Allaouchiche B, Boselli E, Benhamou D. Clinical assessment of the ultrasonographic measurement of antral area for estimating preoperative gastric content and volume. Anesthesiology. 2011 May; 114 (5): 1086-92.
  • Perlas A, Mitsakakis N, Liu L, Cino M, Haldipur N, Davis L, Cubillos J, Chan V. Validation of a mathematical model for ultrasound assessment of gastric volume by gastroscopic examination. Anesth Analg. 2013 Feb; 116(2):357-63.
  • Kruisselbrink R, Arzola C, Endersby R, Tse C, Chan V, Perlas A. Intra- and interrater reliability of ultrasound assessment of gastric volume. Anesthesiology. 2014 Jul;121(1):46-51.
  • Van de Putte P, Perlas A. Gastric sonography in the severely obese surgical patient: a feasibility study. Anesth Analg. 2014 Nov; 119(5):1105-10.


  • Tomomasa T, Tabata M, Nako Y, Kaneko H, Morikawa A. Ultrasonographic assessment of intragastric volume in neonates: factors affecting the relationship between intragastric volume and antral cross-sectional area. Pediatr Radiol. 1996 Nov; 26 (11): 815-820.
  • Schmitz A, Thomas S, Melanie F, Rabia L, Klaghofer R, Weiss M, Kellenberger C. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2012 Feb;22(2):144-9.
  • Spencer A, Lardner D, Walker A, Yeung A, Yee K, Mulvey J, Perlas A. Ultrasound Assessment of gastric volume in the pediatric patient: Development of a predictive model. Pediatric Anesthesia. 2015 Jan; 25:301-308.
  • Horowitz R, Cico SJ, Bailitz J. Point-of-care Ultrasound: A New Tool for the Identification of Gastric Foreign Bodies in Children? J Emerg Med. 2016 Jan;50(1):99-103.
  • Song IK, Kim HJ, Lee JH, Kim EH, Kim JT, Kim HS. Ultrasound assessment of gastric volume in children after drinking carbohydrate-containing fluids. Br J Anaesth. 2016 Apr;116(4):513-7.
  • Gagey AC, de Queiroz Siqueira M, Desgranges FP, Combet S, Naulin C, Chassard D, Bouvet L. Ultrasound assessment of the gastric contents for the guidance of the anaesthetic strategy in infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: a prospective cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2016 May;116(5):649-54.


  • Wong CA, Loffredi M, Ganchiff JN, Zhao J, Wang Z, Avram MJ. Gastric emptying of water in term pregnancy. Anesthesiology. 2002 Jun; 96 (6): 1395-400.
  • Wong CA, McCarthy RJ, Fitzgerald PC, Raikoff K, Avram MJ. Gastric emptying of water in obese pregnant women at term. Anesth Analg. 2007 Sep; 105 (3): 751-5.
  • Arzola C, Cubillos J, Perlas A, Downey K, Carvalho J. Inter-rater reliability and agreement of qualitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content in the third trimester of pregnancy. British Journal of Anesthesia. 2014 Dec; 113(6):1018-1023.
  • Barboni E, Mancinelli P, Bitossi U, DE Gaudio AR, Micaglio M, Sorbi F, DI Filippo A. Ultrasound evaluation of the stomach and gastric emptying in pregnant women at term: a case-control study. Minerva Anestesiol. 2016 May;82(5):543-9.
  • Jay L, Zieleskiewicz L, Desgranges FP, Cogniat B, Pop M, Boucher P, Bellon A, Léone M, Chassard D, Bouvet L. Determination of a cut-off value of antral area measured in the supine position for the fast diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient: A prospective cohort study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2016 Jun.
  • Kinsella SM. Position, position, position - terminology during stomach ultrasound in pregnant women. Anaesthesia. 2016 Nov;71(11):1264-1267.
  • Rouget C, Chassard D, Bonnard C, Pop M, Desgranges FP, Bouvet L.Changes in qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of the gastric antrum before and after elective caesarean section in term pregnant women: a prospective cohort study. Anaesthesia. 2016 Nov;71(11):1284-1290.

Clinical applications and Case reports

  • Koenig SJ, Lakticova V, Mayo PH. Utility of ultrasonography for detection of gastric fluid during urgent endotracheal intubation. Intensive Care Med 2011 Apr; 37 (4) :627-31.
  • Van de Putte P. Bedside gastric ultrasonography to guide anesthetic management in a nonfasted emergency patient. J Clin Anesth. 2013 Mar; 25(2):165-6.
  • Tampo A, Suzuki A, Ijiri E, Kunisawa T, Iwasaki H. Preanesthetic gastric assessment with sonography for a patient with a full stomach. J Clin Anesth. 2013 Mar; 25(2):164-5.
  • Stach O, Starczewska MH, Kański A. Usability of ultrasound assessment of gastric content. Case reports. J Ultrason. 2014 Dec;14(59):442-6.
  • Alakkad H, Kruisselbrink R, Chin KJ, Niazi AU, Abbas S, Chan VW, Perlas A. Point-of-care ultrasound defines gastric content and changes the anesthetic management of elective surgical patients who have not followed fasting instructions: a prospective case series. Can J Anaesth. 2015 Nov;62(11):1188-95.
  • Bouvet L, Boselli E, Cheere E, Stewart A, Allaouchiche B, Chassard D. Ultrasound Assessment of the Prokinetic Effect of Erythromycin in Trauma Patients with a Full Stomach: A Case Series. Anesth Analg. 2016 Apr;122(4):1108-11.

Early studies – Gastric emptying

  • Bolondi L, Bortolotti M, Santi V, Calletti T, Gaiani S, Labò G.Measurement of gastric emptying time by real-time ultrasonography. Gastroenterology 1985 Oct;89(4):752-9.
  • Holt S, McDicken WN, Anderson T, Stewart IC, Heading RC. Dynamic imaging of the stomach by real-time ultrasound--a method for the study of gastric motility. Gut 1980 Jul; 21 (7): 597-601.
  • Bateman DN, Whittingham TA. Measurement of gastric emptying by real-time ultrasound. Gut 1982 Jun; 23 (6): 524-7.
  • Soreide E, Hausken T, Soreide J, Steen P. Gastric emptying of a light hospital breakfast. A study using real time ultrasonography. Acta Anesthesiol Scand 1996; 40: 549-553.
  • Darwiche G, Almér LO, Björgell O, Cederholm C, Nilsson P. Measurement of gastric emptying by standardized real-time ultrasonography in healthy subjects and diabetic patients. J Ultrasound Med. 1999 Oct; 18 (10): 673-82.